Heilanstalten Hohenlychen was opened in 1902 as a Red Cross sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis. The site consisted of many buildings, and was notable for its holistic approach to the treatment of the disease. Onsite facilities included a swimming pool, a bath house, chapel, surgery department, sports hall, a gym which doubled as a cinema, and a school. During the 1930s the hospital became a health resort, specialising in sports rehabilitation; before eventually turning into a military hospital during World War II. The former sanatorium was located close to the Ravensbrück concentration camp, where professor Karl Gebhardt, medical superintendent of Hohenlychen, conducted medical and surgical experiments on unwilling female prisoners.
Gebhardt stood trial at Nuremberg for war crimes, and moreover for crimes against humanity. He was found guilty on both counts and sentenced to death by hanging, which was carried out on 2 June 1948.
The Red Army took over the hospital at the end of World War II, during which period it had once again been used as a hospital. The Soviets left in 1993, and though some development has since been carried out on the doctors’ residences, Hohenlychen was abandoned as a sanatorium.